Journal of Integrated Health Sciences

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year
: 2022  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 71--75

Association between clinical and ultrasound diagnoses of aetiologies of vaginal bleeding in the first trimester


Nkengfua Samuel1, Yauba Saidu2, Ngalame Abigail1, Kwasseu Gaetan1, Kemah Ben-Lawrence3, Halle-Ekane Gregory Edie4 
1 Department of Public Health and Hygiene, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon
2 Clinton Health Access Initiative, Yaounde; Institute for Global Health, Siena University, Siena, Italy
3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospitals of North Midlands, United Kingdom; Health Education and Research Organizations (HERO), Douala
4 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Douala General Hospital, Douala, Cameroon

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Nkengfua Samuel
Department of Public Health and Hygiene, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea
Cameroon

Introduction: The prevalence of first-trimester vaginal bleeding (FTVB) ranges worldwide from 4% to 24%. In resource-limited settings, there is a heavy reliance on clinical presentation to establish the cause of bleeding due to the limited availability of ultrasounds (US) imaging modalities. Objectives: The objective is to determine the association between clinical and US diagnoses in FTVB at the Buea and Limbe regional hospitals (BRH and LRH). Subjects and Methods: We recruited 144 participants, with <14 weeks of gestational age at the BRH and LRH. Data on sociodemographic, clinical, and US diagnoses were obtained from patients. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. Results: From 144 participants enrolled, 55 (38.2%) were from BRH and 89 (61.8%) were from LRH. The main causes of FTVB were threatened abortions (42.36%), incomplete abortion (27.8%), complete abortion (3.5%), missed abortion (1.4%), ectopic pregnancy (22.91%), molar pregnancy (0.91%), and pregnancy with fibroids (1.4%). Cohen's kappa analysis revealed a good degree of agreement between clinical and US diagnoses for elective consultations (κ = 0.634, P < 0.001) and an average degree of agreement for those consulting as referrals (κ = 0.520, P < 0.001). Our study revealed a significant statistical association between clinical and US diagnoses for the following pathologies: threatened abortion (P < 0.001), incomplete abortion (P = 0.004), complete abortion (P < 0.019), and ectopic pregnancy (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study reveals an overall average consistency between clinical and US diagnoses, especially for common etiologies of bleeding in early pregnancy. Hence, the need for US to confirm clinical diagnoses.


How to cite this article:
Samuel N, Saidu Y, Abigail N, Gaetan K, Ben-Lawrence K, Edie HEG. Association between clinical and ultrasound diagnoses of aetiologies of vaginal bleeding in the first trimester.J Integr Health Sci 2022;10:71-75


How to cite this URL:
Samuel N, Saidu Y, Abigail N, Gaetan K, Ben-Lawrence K, Edie HEG. Association between clinical and ultrasound diagnoses of aetiologies of vaginal bleeding in the first trimester. J Integr Health Sci [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Jun 4 ];10:71-75
Available from: https://www.jihs.in/article.asp?issn=2347-6486;year=2022;volume=10;issue=2;spage=71;epage=75;aulast=Samuel;type=0